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An Evolutionary Analysis of Insect Carbonic Anhydrases, pp. 145-168 $100.00
Authors:  (Csaba Ortutay, Ayodeji Olatubosun, Seppo Parkkila, Mauno Vihinen, Martti Tolvanen, Institute of Medical Technology, University of Tampere, Finland, and others)
Carbonic anhydrases (CA) are enzymes which catalyze the interconversion of CO2
and bicarbonate ions. CAs are found in all independently living organisms in which they
regulate pH homeostasis and assist in fundamental metabolic pathways. The same
reaction mechanism has been reinvented at least four times in the course of evolution,
leading to three distinct major classes of alpha, beta and gamma CAs, totally unrelated in
structural and sequence levels, and minor classes delta (Co/Zn enzyme, in marine
phytoplankton), and zeta (Cd/Zn enzyme in marine diatoms). All CAs are
metalloproteins, with bound zinc in most cases.In insects, CAs of the α and β classes
have been identified together with the enzymatically inactive carbonic anhydrase-related
proteins (CARPs). To elucidate the relationship of these genes, a phylogenetic analysis of
these sequences was carried out. We found various lineage-specific gene duplications
and losses. In addition, we discovered high divergence in the number and location of
exons in one family of orthologs (CAH-1). A strong functional conservation of the
CARP sequences is also demonstrated. 

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An Evolutionary Analysis of Insect Carbonic Anhydrases, pp. 145-168