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Leg Muscle Responses to Stimulation by TASERŪ Conducted Energy Weapons: Similarities with Voluntary Muscle Contractions during Exercise, pp. 169-179 $0.00
Authors:  (James R. Jauchem, Senior Research Physiologist, U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory, 711th Human Performance Wing, Human Effectiveness Directorate, Directed Energy Bio-Effects Division, Brooks City-Base, Texas)
Abstract:
TASER conducted energy weapons (CEWs) cause incapacitation due to leg muscle
contraction resulting in ―gravitational dysreflexia (i.e. fall to the ground), and loss of
ability to perform coordinated action for the duration of the impulse‖ [Stratbucker et al.
2006]. Normal postural reflexes are not able to overcome the loss of muscle control. In
this commentary, explanations are provided regarding differences or similarities between
skeletal muscle responses to voluntary muscle contraction (or exercise) and electricallyinduced
muscle contraction (such as that occurring during CEW applications). A
quadruped (Sus scrofa) model is noted to be satisfactory for comparison with humans.
Although muscle-contraction responses to CEW applications generally bypass volition,
some aspects of CEW responses are analogous to changes during exercise. In spite of
some differences in the details of recruitment patterns of muscle motor units, there are
also many similarities between electrical stimulation at high levels and the voluntary
muscle action occurring during exercise. These modes of muscle contraction can result in
some comparable physiological changes. Because of these similarities, knowledge of
previous studies of exercise/muscle contraction may be relevant to responses during
CEW applications. Potential muscle injuries after CEW applications may resemble
injuries after exercise, on the basis of measured increases in total plasma creatinine
phosphokinase (CPK), the CPK-MM isoenzyme fraction, and myoglobin. 


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Leg Muscle Responses to Stimulation by TASERŪ Conducted Energy Weapons: Similarities with Voluntary Muscle Contractions during Exercise, pp. 169-179