Potentiality of Autologous Bone Marrow Derived Cells in Wound and Orthopaedic Surgical Challenges pp. 1-42
Authors: (Samit Kumar Nandi, Samiran Bandyopadhyay, Chandra Sekhar Chakrabarti, Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology, West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, India, and others)
Abstract: Bone marrow is a complex tissue comprised of haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), red and white blood cells and their precursors, mesenchymal stem (MSCs) and progenitor cells, stromal cells and their precursors, and a group of cells including fibroblasts, reticulocytes, adipocytes and endothelial cells which form a connective tissue network called ‗stroma‘. Bone marrow has been studied for a number of purposes in recent years because it is rich in stem cells. Recent studies show bone marrow cells are involved in normal skin maintenance, in maintaining the matrix environment and integrity of the skin. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) also secrete a large number of growth factors and cytokines that are critical to the repair of injured tissues. Bone marrow also seems to be a logical candidate for the treatment of chronic wounds. Osteoblastic stem cells were also found in bone marrow and has been used to stimulate bone formation in skeletal defects and nonunion through cytokines and growth factors secreted by the transplanted cells. Autologous bone marrow can be applied to the fracture site by percutaneous approach or preferably with a delivery carrier to obtain early and satisfactory results.