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Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors: Nuclear Receptors with Pleotropic Actions pp. 127-174 $100.00
Authors:  (Nik Soriani Yaacob, Mohd. Nor Norazmi, Department of Chemical Pathology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia Health Campus, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia)
Abstract:
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated nuclear receptors that regulate gene expression and are modulated by interaction with corepressors and coactivators. Natural and synthetic ligands promote heterodimerization of PPARs with the retinoid-X-receptor (RXR), facilitating their binding to consensus DNA sequences on target genes. To date, three subtypes of PPAR have been identified , , and  ; with the subtype consisting of two distinct functional isoforms, 1 and 2. Although structurally similar, the PPAR subtypes have specific tissue distribution and functions. PPARs regulate multiple cellular functions, such as cell proliferation, the immune response and lipid metabolism and therefore their ligands have been investigated for their potential use in various clinical settings. For example, the PPARligands comprising the thiazolidinedione class of drugs have been used for the management of type 2diabetes. The potential use of PPAR ligands in autoimmune diseases is also being investigated whereas the specific role of PPARs in tumor development is still controversial. Despite some drawbacks, PPARs still remain as potential therapeutic targets for various conditions and currently dual and pan agonists are being investigated for this purpose. Taken together, the role of PPARs in various cellular processes and disease pathogenesis still requires further investigation and continues to be an exciting field of research. This review will attempt to provide examples of some of the recent findings in these areas of research, highlighting the mechanisms of action and the potential use of PPAR agonists as well as the challenges that still need to be addressed. 


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Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors: Nuclear Receptors with Pleotropic Actions pp. 127-174