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Environmental Stressors, Nutrition, and New Peptides Affecting Pituitary Functions in Domestic Ruminants pp. 195-209 $100.00
Authors:  (Hiroya Kadokawa, Department of Veterinary Science, Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi-shi, Japan)
The secretory cells of the pituitary are influenced by hypothalamic and feedback inputs, and also by factors secreted within the pituitary. Based on these mechanisms, pituitary functions, such as responses to hypothalamic hormones and releasing pituitary hormones, are changed according to environmental stress and nutrition. Examples of such environmental factors are high temperature and energy shortage, and these have adverse effects on production and reproduction in domestic cattle in various part of the world, especially, if they are living under different environments from that of their origin land, the place of natural or artificial selection. A famous example is Holstein dairy cows originated from cold climate areas of Europe, and they have various problems of heat stress if they are maintained under a hot and humid climate. In addition to the environmental stressors and nutrition, we need to include new visions based on new peptides recently discovered, e.g., kisspeptin and Gonadotropin-inhibiting hormone (GnIH). Gonadotropin-inhibiting hormone, observed in quail as a member of the RFamide neuropeptide family, suppresses luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion from the avian pituitary. Ruminants have an active gene of another member of the RFamide neuropeptide family, termed RFamide-related peptide-3 (RFRP-3). Our recent study revealed the suppressive effects of bovine RFRP-3 on LH secretion from anterior pituitary (AP) cells, as well as pulsatile LH secretion in cattle, therefore, RFRP-3 is GnIH in domestic ruminants. Kisspeptins are peptide hormones encoded by the KiSS-1 gene and acts as the principal positive regulator of the reproductive axis by directly stimulating gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuron activity. However, peripheral administration, as well as central administration, of kisspeptin stimulates LH secretion in various mammalian species. Using bovine and porcine AP cells, we observed the stimulating effects of kisspeptin on LH secretion from AP cells. Surprisingly, kisspeptin-10 stimulated the secretion of other pituitary hormones, growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL), from bovine AP cells. Apparently, we need to consider the possibility that kisspeptin may be a molecular link between reproductive function and other functions at the pituitary level. The importance of this hypothesis is supported by our study using pre-pubertal heifers: intravenous kisspeptin injection stimulates secretions of GH, as well as LH, furthermore, the GH peak is observed after the LH peak. Therefore, our knowledge of pituitary should be improved after further studies to clarify the links between reproduction and other functions of pituitary under various environments and nutritional conditions, and both GnIH and kisspeptin may have important roles in the mechanisms. 

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Environmental Stressors, Nutrition, and New Peptides Affecting Pituitary Functions in Domestic Ruminants pp. 195-209