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Computational Fluid Dynamics in Biomedical Engineering pp. 109-136 $100.00
Authors:  (T.A.S. Kaufmann, R. Graefe, M. Hormes, T. Schmitz-Rode, U. Steinseifer, Chair of Cardiovascular Engineering, Institute of Applied Medical Engineering, Helmholtz Institute, RWTH Aachen University and University Hospital Aachen, Germany)
There are more than 1.5 million operations each year using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), when the function of the human heart is taken over by extracorporeal blood pumps and oxygenators. Every fourth of these patients suffers from minor or major neurologic events such as headaches, mnemonic problems, loss of neural functions or coma. This is mainly related to the blood flow to the brain. The understanding of these flow conditions is therefore of high clinical relevance. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is used to model the flow in the human vascular system and thus gain insight in flow processes invisible to experimental measurements. To analyze these conditions, realistic models of the human vascular system are obtained using modern imaging techniques. From this data, a 3D model is reconstructed and the fluid flow can be calculated. Different blood properties (e.g. Non-Newtonian behavior) and realistic boundary conditions like systemic pressure have to be taken into account. Thereby, the flow in the cardiovascular system can be analyzed and optimized for different applications and the neurologic events during CPB operations can be reduced. 

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Computational Fluid Dynamics in Biomedical Engineering pp. 109-136