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Hydrodynamics Analysis for Partially Ventilated Cavitating Vehicle Based on Two-Fluid Model pp. 205-242 $100.00
Authors:  (M. Xiang, S.C.P. Cheung, J.Y. Tu, W.H. Zhang, Institute of Aerospace and Material Engineering, National University of Defence Technology, Changsha, P. R. China, and others)
Reducing the high friction drag caused by viscosity of water has been a great challenge in developing high speed underwater vehicles. Among many proposed drag reduction techniques, ventilated cavitation has been considered as one of the promising approaches to achieve drag reduction. In this chapter, particular focus is directed to investigate the drag reduction mechanism of partial ventilated cavitation which is frequently encountered; especially for transient launch and vehicle maneuvering. Nonetheless, hydrodynamic effect of partial ventilated cavity is not only affected by dynamical effect of the deformable gas-liquid interface; but also the morphology transition from continuous cavity to dispersed gas bubbles downstream. It is therefore an extremely difficult task to gain in-depth understanding of the complex two-phase flow structure and its associated drag reduction mechanism. In this study, a numerical scheme based on Eulerian-Eulerain two-fluid framework has been proposed to analyse flow characteristics and hydrodynamics resulted from the bubbly flow downstream partially ventilated cavity. The main content can be broadly classified into four parts: (i) A detail review of basic theory and numerical approaches for ventilated cavitating underwater vehicles; (ii) Model development for the bubbly flow downstream partially ventilated cavity; (iii) Characterization and model validation of gas-liquid flow field; (iv) Hydrodynamics analysis based on the simulation results. In the first part, background theory and technical problems for ventilated cavitating underwater vehicle are introduced. Afterwards, a literature review of the historical development of numerical approaches in simulating ventilated cavitating flow is summarized. In the second part, an Eulerian–Eulerian two-fluid model incorporated with the population balance approach is introduced to predict the bubbly wake flow behind the ventilated cavity. Particular attention is devoted to establish air entrainment model at the cavity base and to improve interfacial momentum transfer models. In the third part, numerical simulation is carried out for underwater vehicle under different ventilation rate and sailing velocity. The flow field parameters including void fraction, velocity, pressure and bubble size distributions are obtained based on the simulation results. Good agreement is achieved in compared with experimental data. Finally, the drag reduction efficient for the partially ventilated vehicle is closely examined. Comparison between non-cavitating and supercavitation conditions is also presented. Flow field characteristics and meaningful conclusions for partially ventilated cavitating vehicles are summarised at the end of the article. 

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Hydrodynamics Analysis for Partially Ventilated Cavitating Vehicle Based on Two-Fluid Model pp. 205-242