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Anti-Trypanosomatid Properties of Cystatin Superfamily: Implications on Parasite Development and Virulence pp. 41-76 $100.00
Authors:  (André Luis Souza dos Santos, Claudia Masini d’Avila-Levy, Marta Helena Branquinha, Departamento de Microbiologia Geral, Instituto de Microbiologia Prof. Paulo de Góes (IMPPG), Centro de Ciências da Saúde (CCS), Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Ilha do Fundão, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil, and others)
Abstract:
The Trypanosomatidae family, assorted on the Kinetoplastida order, consists of distinct genera of eukaryotic monoflagellated protozoa. Among the trypanosomatids with a digenetic life cycle, some species stand out: Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma brucei and several Leishmania species. These parasites are the causative agents of Chagas’ disease, African sleeping sickness and leishmaniasis, respectively. Likewise, some species belonging to the Phytomonas genus can induce serious diseases in plants, which indicates the economical importance of these trypanosomatids, a problem especially
affecting developing countries. Trypanosomatid cysteine proteases have been implicated in several processes including proliferation, differentiation, nutrition, host cell infection, and evasion of the host immune responses. For instance, Leishmania spp. possess three
major cysteine proteases of the papain family (designated clan CA, family C1), namely, the cathepsin L-like CPA and CPB and the cathepsin B-like CPC, which are directly linked to the parasite survival inside macrophage cells and modulation of host immune
response. In addition, cruzipain is a major cysteine protease, expressed in all developmental forms of T. cruzi, being highly immunogenic in patients with chronic Chagas’ disease. Since cysteine proteases are present in trypanosomatids and their catalytic properties can vary considerably from those of the host enzymes they are considered important targets for new chemotherapeutical intervention. 


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Anti-Trypanosomatid Properties of Cystatin Superfamily: Implications on Parasite Development and Virulence pp. 41-76