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Calpain-Like Proteins in Trypanosomatids: Effects of Calpain Inhibitors on the Parasites’ Physiology and Motivations for their Possible Application as Chemotherapeutic Agents pp. 77-104 $100.00
Authors:  (André Luis Souza dos Santos, Claudia Masini d’Avila-Levy, Marta Helena Branquinha, Departamento de Microbiologia Geral, Instituto de Microbiologia Prof. Paulo de Góes (IMPPG), Centro de Ciências da Saúde (CCS), Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Ilha do Fundão, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil, and others)
Abstract:
Calpains are neutral calcium-dependent cysteine proteases that have been extensively studied in mammalians and that exist in two major isoforms, m-calpain and μ-calpain, which require millimolar and micromolar concentrations of calcium ions, respectively, for their activation. Calpains are involved in several physiological events in eukaryotic cells. However, significant activation of calpains can be detected under several pathological conditions including cancer, neurological disorders, spinal cord injury, atherosclerosis, diabetes and cataract. In order to control these human disorders, the
scientific community and pharmaceutical industries have developed bioactive compounds with capability to inhibit the calpain activity. Calpain-like molecules are also produced by pathogenic microorganisms, especially the protozoan parasites belonging to the
Trypanosomatidae family. The commercial calpain inhibitors have been tested in order to block some crucial events in the trypanosomatid cells as well as their interaction with their hosts. These studies were encouraged by the publication of the complete genome sequences of three human pathogenic trypanosomatids, Trypanosoma brucei,
Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania major, which allowed several in silico analyses that in turn directed the identification of numerous genes with interesting chemotherapeutic characteristics. 


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Calpain-Like Proteins in Trypanosomatids: Effects of Calpain Inhibitors on the Parasites’ Physiology and Motivations for their Possible Application as Chemotherapeutic Agents pp. 77-104