Abstract: The measurement of glucose in whole blood is a critical step in the management of diabetes mellitus. The measurement of blood glucose can be used by the patient to monitor the level of glucostasis and to determine the level of required action be it an injection of insulin or an intake of carbohydrate. Undoubtedly the most successful technology that is used for whole blood glucose measurement by diabetic patients is the electrochemical enzyme biosensor. This has resulted in a wide array of test meters that are available for home use. Typically, these systems report a glucose reading from a small droplet of capillary blood within 5 seconds to an accuracy of 15-20% of a laboratory reference method such as the Yellow Springs Instrument Hospital Analyzer. Another area which is growing in importance is the ability to measure glucose in a continuous manner with an in-dwelling sensor. Unlike the episodic measurement obtained with the home testing meter, continuous measurements offer the opportunity of monitoring glucose fluctuations in real time and could in principal be used as part of a closed loop system to control insulin delivery via an associated insulin infusion pump.
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