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Cultivated Mushrooms: Disease Control in Mushroom Industry pp. 55-76 $100.00
Authors:  (Ivana Potočnik, Institute of Pesticides and Environmental Protection, Banatska, Belgrade-Zemun, Serbia)
Abstract:
Button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sp.) and shii-take (Lentinus edodes) are the most commonly cultivated basidiomycetes worldwide. The production of fruiting bodies is severely afflicted by fungal, bacterial, and viral pathogens that can cause diseases which have an effect on yield and quality. Major A. bisporus fungal pathogens are Mycogone perniciosa, Lecanicillium fungicola, and Cladobotryum with two species mycophillum and dendroides, causal agents of dry bubble, wet bubble, and cobweb disease, respectively. Various Trichoderma species are the causal organisms of green mould, affecting all three edible mushrooms. The usual method of controlling of diseases on farms worldwide is based on the use of fungicides. However, development of pathogen resistance to fungicides after frequent application and host sensitivity to fungicides are serious problems. For improvement of crop protection and reduction of production costs, the effects of some new fungicides are being tested. The strains of edible mushrooms that were recently commonly cultivated seem to be more tolerant to fungicides in vitro than the earlier commercial strains. Resistance to benzimidazole fungicides has developed and the number of available fungicides is decreasing. Since studies of fungicides efficacy on cultivated mushrooms by agrochemical companies are very rare, only few fungicides are officially recommended in mushroom industry: prochloraz in EU countries, and chlorothalonil, thiabendazol and tiophanate-methyl in US and Canada. Decreased sensitivity of L. fungicola to prochloraz was noted. Also, inefficiency of this fungicide was recorded in experimental growing room, at a level of spotting symptoms of cobweb disease. However, with regard to resistance development, harm to the environment and human health, special attention should be focused on good programme of hygiene. The introduction of new fungicides of biological origin creates new possibilities for crop protection from fungal pathogens. 


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Cultivated Mushrooms: Disease Control in Mushroom Industry pp. 55-76