Chemical Composition and Nutritional Value of European Species of Wild Growing Mushrooms pp. 129-152
Authors: (Pavel Kalač, Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, University of South Bohemia, České Budějovice, Czech Republic)
Abstract: Tens of wild growing mushroom species are widely consumed as a delicacy in a part of Europe. Knowledge of their nutritional value has so far been fragmentary mainly due to the very limited information on the bioavailability of their constituents. Dry matter content varies usually between 80 and 140 g kg-1. Usual medians of crude protein, lipid and ash content are about 25, 3 and 8 g per 100 g of dry matter, respectively. Various carbohydrates form the rest. However, great variations occur. Energy is low, about 150 kJ per 100 g of fresh mushrooms. The proportion of essential amino acids seems to be nutritionally favorable, while the content of n-3 fatty acids is negligible. Chitin, glycogen, mannitol and trehalose are typical carbohydrate constituents. Potassium is the highly prevailing element within minerals. Relatively high proportion of fiber, health-promoting β-glucans, compounds with antioxidation activity and flavor constituents are the topics provoking an increasing interest of both researchers and consumers. Nevertheless, several popular species accumulate high levels of cadmium, mercury and lead if growing on heavily polluted soils.