Authors: (V.O. Antonyuk, R.S. Stoika, Institute of Cell Biology National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Líviv, Ukraine)
Abstract: The results of study of 4 specific lectins isolated from higher Amanita genus mushrooms and possessing hemolytic activity are presented. Two of them Ė A. phalloides and A. virosa, belong to Amanitaceae family, while two others - Mycena pura and Laetiporus sulphureus, belong to Tricholomataceae and Corticiaceae families, correspondingly. The purification methods used for their isolation are described, and the comparative analysis of physico-chemical and biological properties of these lectins have been done. It was shown that according to the peculiarities of the action towards erythrocytes, these lectins can be divided into two groups. While in Mycena pura and Laetiporus sulphureus lectins, the hemagglutinating activity is higher than the hemolytic activity, in A. virosa and A. phalloides lectins, situation is opposite and the hemolytic activity is higher than the hemagglutinating activity. The hemolytic activity of the lectins under study was inhibited by the polyethylene glycol of high molecular mass. At the same time, the presence of polyethylene glycol did not influence the hemagglutinating ability of the lectins. This allowed studying their carbohydrate specificity, and it was found that the lectins of Amanita genus mushrooms considerably differed in this specificity. The hemolytic lectins also possessed antimicrobial action and inhibited growth of Gram-positive microorganisms and Proteus. Besides, they demonstrated cytotoxic action towards cultured mammalian leukemia cells. In general, these mushroom lectins resemble cytolytic lectins of lower invertebrates. Their potential biological role is considered.