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Ionic Liquids as a Catalyst or Solvent for Various Organic Transformations pp. 91-132 $100.00
Authors:  (Krishna M. Deshmukh, Ziyauddin S. Qureshi, Bhalchandra M. Bhanage, Department of Chemistry, Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga, Mumbai, India)
The room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) are liquids which consist of ions and melts at or below 100 ºC. They have typical properties like negligible vapor pressure, high thermal stability, and nonflammable nature. Moreover, the physicochemical properties of ionic liquids, such as their melting temperature and hydrophilicity/ hydrophobicity, can be fine-tuned by changing the structure of the cations and anions. Ionic liquids were initially introduced as alternative green reaction media; but today they have marched far beyond this border, showing their significant role in controlling the reaction as a catalyst. The Brønsted and Lewis acidic ionic liquids have exhibited a great potential in replacement of conventional homogeneous and heterogeneous acidic catalysts, and have been successfully applied to a variety of reactions including the Diels-Alder reaction, Mannich reaction, Prins reaction, Acetalization of carbonyl compounds, Friedel–Crafts reaction, Friedlander Reaction, Biginelli reaction, Esterification and transesterification with enhanced selectivity and activity. Ionic liquids are also extensively used as a green reaction media for various transition metals catalyzed cross coupling reaction such as Suzuki, Heck, and Negishi. It is also used for catalyst immobilization, which not only allow recovery and recycling of costly transition metal catalyst but also has positive effect on catalysis. Catalysts often become more reactive for a reaction such as Hydroformylation, Hydrogenation and hydroamination reactions. 

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Ionic Liquids as a Catalyst or Solvent for Various Organic Transformations pp. 91-132