A Review of Kinetic Hydrate Inhibitors: Tailor-Made Water-Soluble Polymers for Oil and Gas Industry Applications pp. (171-210)
Authors: (Malcolm A. Kelland, Department of Mathematics and Natural Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Stavanger, Stavanger, Norway)
Abstract: Kinetic hydrate inhibitors (KHIs) delay the nucleation and often the crystal growth of gas hydrates. They are primarily used today to prevent these ice-like solids from plugging production pipelines in the upstream oil and gas industry. KHI technology has been reviewed previously, but considerable new research on KHIs has been carried out since the last review. This article gives an up-to-date review of all the different classes of polymers and non-polymeric molecules which have been explored as potential KHIs, with greater focus on their methods of synthesis. Most of these polymers contain amide groups adjacent to hydrophobic groups. The seawater biodegradability of these polymers is reviewed, where data is available, as well as various hydrate kinetic inhibition mechanisms that may be operating. Several of these classes of KHI have not yet been explored for other possible applications.