Developments and Applications of Ion Sources (pp. 249-284)
Authors: (Moustafa Mohamed Abdelrahman, Accelerators & Ion Sources Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, Egypt)
Abstract: A review of the principal ion sources that are presently being utilized or can be potentially used for different applications is given. A particular concentration on recent improvements to the existing sources and new source developments are also given. Specifically, status reports will be given on a number of state-of-the-art positive ion sources routinely used for many research applications, including ion implantation, ion beam deposition, sputtering, isotope separation, modification of surface properties, ion beam lithography and accelerator mass spectrometry. This review deals with the principles of the most important ion sources, types of gas discharge, methods of plasma production and ion beam extraction. Ion beam quality properties are also discussed.