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Actin Cytoskeleton Alterations: Are There any Consequences? pp. 229-244 $100.00
Authors:  (Silvia Versari, Livia Barenghi, Silvia Bradamante, CNR-ISTM Institute of Molecular Science and Technologies, Milan, Italy)
Actin is one of the most abundant and highly conserved proteins of all eukaryotes. It
is the major component of the cytoskeleton, and is involved in many of the structural and
dynamic aspects of cell growth, differentiation, division, membrane organisation,
transport, and signal transduction. Alterations in such a critical component can lead to
pathological conditions. We here describe the effects of actin cytoskeleton
disorganisation and/or depolymerisation in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast model
The structure of the actin cytoskeleton was disorganised by subjecting yeast cells to
simulated (Rotating Wall Vessel) or real microgravity (spaceflight), both of which
activated the signal transduction cascade of the high osmolarity glycerol (HOG) MAP
kinase pathway, which responds to cell swelling/shrinking, and the cell wall integrity
(CWI) pathway, which is involved in cell wall biogenesis and actin cytoskeleton
reorganisation. The same results were observed when the actin cytoskeleton structure was
depolymerised by means of treatment with dihydrocytochalasin B (DHCB) or (+)-(R)-
trans-4-(1-aminoethyl)-N-(4-pyridyl)cyclohexanecarboxamide dihydrochloride (Y-
The HOG and CWI activation indicate a response to a variation in cell volume.
Under such conditions, yeast activates volume-sensitive ion channels that alter the ion
flux to restore normal volume. These alterations are not pathological per se but, in the
case of significant environmental stress (such as oxidative stress), they can lead to clear
signs of damage. We observed massive protein carbonylation and a marked loss of the
antioxidant glutathione through chloride channels. 

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Actin Cytoskeleton Alterations: Are There any Consequences? pp. 229-244