Adiponectin, macrophage, and metabolic syndorome (pp. 11-22)
Authors: (Yuchang Fu)
Abstract: Metabolic syndrome is a combination of metabolic disorders, which includes obesity, insulin resistance, type II diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The metabolic syndrome has become one of the main causes of mortality in the world. Changing one’s lifestyle is currently the preferred treatment for preventing and curing the metabolic syndrome. Therefore, finding an effective way to clinically treat the metabolic syndrome is a big challenge.
Adiponectin is one adipokine which is mainly expressed and secreted from adipose tissue. Adiponectin circulates in high and low molecular weight multimeric forms in the bloodstream. Epidemiological evidence has indicated that plasma adiponectin levels are relevant to human health conditions. Transgenic and knockout animal models of adiponectin and its receptors have also confirmed the importance of adiponectin in the metabolic syndrome.
Macrophages are a heterogeneous and plastic population of phagocytic cells. Macrophage cells can enter other tissues through the bloodstream, and interact with the other cells in their resident tissues. Recent research results suggest that alterations in adiponectin effects in macrophages can improve metabolic syndrome in animal models. The use of macrophages as carriers for enhancing adiponectin functions in other metabolic tissues probably provides a novel and innovative approach for prevention and therapy of the metabolic syndrome.