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Response of Foodborne Microorganism to Osmotic Stress (pp. 109-130) $100.00
Authors:  (Hiroshi Asakura, Keiko Kawamoto, and Sou-ichi Makino, National Institute of Health Sciences, Tokyo, Japan and others)
In food environment, microorganisms must face alternating periods of prosperity and adversity. Differentiating bacteria confront situations of adversity by developing resistant structures. From the ancient, NaCl has been used for the preservation of foods by increasing their osmolarity to prevent the growth and/or survival of pathogenic bacteria. The high osmotic food environment is thus harsh for bacteria, thereby reducing their survival. To resist such environment, bacteria develop the survival strategies by responding several mechanisms. From the public health concerns, the foods contaminated with pathogenic bacteria become possible causative agents for the foodborne outbreak in humans, and thus it is indispensable to understand how and whether the bacteria show survival in high osmotic foods. In this chapter, we review the basic mechanisms of bacterial responses against osmotic stress. In addition, the osmotic stress is often involved in the loss of culturability in bacteria, while the nonculturable bacteria could retain their viability (which is measured, for example, by the integrity of membrane, DNA, and ATP synthesis). The culture method has been a golden standard for estimating food safety, this differential physiology of bacteria under the harsh condition is then discussed with the possible risk of the viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state for public health. 

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Response of Foodborne Microorganism to Osmotic Stress (pp. 109-130)