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Response of Salmonella enterica Serovars to Environmental Stresses (pp. 461-507) $100.00
Authors:  (William J. Kenyon, and Michael P. Spector, University of West Georgia, Carrollton, Georgia, USA and others)
Salmonella serovars are agents of foodborne disease throughout the world. As a consequence of their life cycles, they must sense and respond appropriately to the variety of cues they encounter while moving through numerous natural, commercial and host environments. Many of these environments present stresses to the cell including: nutrient limitation/starvation, high/low osmolarity, acid/base, and high/low temperatures as well as desiccation, and exposure to antimicrobial peptides, bile salts and oxidizing agents. The cellular responses mounted to these stresses can provide stress-specific resistance or provide a cross-resistance to a variety of potentially lethal conditions. These stress responses are controlled by an assortment of regulators including: alternative sigma factors (e.g., S, E, and H), two component systems (e.g., PhoPQ, PmrAB, RcsCB, and OmpR-EnvZ) and transcriptional regulators (e.g., SoxS, SoxR, OxyR, Fur, RamA, RamR, MarA and MarR). These regulators respond to one or more environmental signal(s) by up-regulating, and down-regulating, the expression of sets of genes both unique to the inducing stress and overlapping with other stresses. The protection generated by these stress responses allows these enteropathogens to survive and persist in natural ecosystems (e.g., soil and water systems), food processing and handling environments, and the plethora of host niches it encounters. Thus, these stress responses have a profound impact on the epidemiology and pathogenesis of these medically and economically important pathogens. 

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Response of Salmonella enterica Serovars to Environmental Stresses (pp. 461-507)