Abstract: More than 50 Vibrio species are living in marine or estuarine aquatic environments; they are free-living in the water or inhabit sediments and other organisms. Some of them are human pathogens that cause gastroenteritis, septicemia and wound infection while some are pathogenic to other marine animals. In their natural environment, vibrios encounter changes in temperature, salinity and nutrients, some of which cause stress and influence the survival and virulence of the pathogenic strains. During the processing of food, vibrios encounter various stresses, such as high temperature, acid, high pressure, irradiation, ethanol and others. During infection in a human host, pathogenic vibrios can survive the stresses of gastric acid and intestinal bile as well as oxidative stress from the human defense system. Vibrios that are adapted to sublethal stress exhibited enhanced tolerance to such stress, and in several cases are also cross-protected against other stresses. The expression of virulence factors is also influenced by environmental stresses.