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01.Activated Carbons as Catalyst Supports (pp.169-204)
02.Combination of Ozone and Activated Carbon for Water and Wastewater Treatment (pp.433-474)
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Surface Chemistry of Activated Carbons (pp.125-168) $100.00
Authors:  (Sónia A.C. Carabineiro, M. Fernando R. Pereira, José J.M. Órfão, José L. Figueiredo, Laboratório de Catálise e Materiais (LCM), Laboratório Associado LSRE/LCM, Faculdade de Engenharia, Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal)
Activated carbons have a disordered graphitic structure, which has been described as
compared to to wrinkled paper sheets. The presence of heteroatoms (such as O, N, H, S,
etc) bound to the edges of the graphene layers originates a variety of surface functional
groups. Oxygenated functionalities have been most extensively studied, since they are
formed spontaneously by exposure of the carbon material to the atmosphere; however,
nitrogen, sulfur and phosphorous groups can also be found. The nature and concentration
of surface functional groups may be modified by suitable thermal or chemical treatments.
Treatments in the gas or liquid phase can be used to increase the concentration of surface
groups, while heating under inert atmosphere may be used to selectively remove some of
those functionalities. A variety of experimental techniques has been used to characterise
functional groups, such as chemical titration methods, temperature-programmed
desorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and infra-red spectroscopy methods. The
results obtained by temperature-programmed desorption agree quantitatively with the
elemental and proximate analyses of the oxidized materials, and qualitatively with the
observations by infra-red spectroscopy. Some applications of functionalised activated
carbons in adsorption and catalysis for several reactions are mentioned. 

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Surface Chemistry of Activated Carbons (pp.125-168)