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01.Activated Carbons as Catalyst Supports (pp.169-204)
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Activated Carbons as Catalyst Supports (pp.169-204) $100.00
Authors:  (M.E. Gálvez, S. Ascaso, A. Boyano, R. Moliner, M.J. Lázaro, Instituto de Carboquímica, CSIC, Miguel Luesma Castán, Zaragoza, Spain)
Abstract:
Among their many interesting applications, activated carbons have been considered over
the last decades for their utilization in several processes involving heterogeneous catalytic
reactions. In these processes the catalyst increases the reaction rate and controls the selectivity
of the reactions involved towards the generation of desired products. Most of these catalysts
consist of metals or metallic compounds supported on several materials which role is not only
to maintain the catalytic phase in a well dispersed state but also affect the catalytic activity,
by means of direct participation in any of the steps of the reaction mechanism, or by
favouring the interactions between active phase and support. This participation and their
interaction with the active phase make catalyst supports more than just simple active phase
carriers.
Some of the properties desirable in a support are its inertness towards unwanted
reactions, stability under regeneration and reaction conditions, adequate mechanical
properties, tuneable surface area, porosity, and physical form, i.e. the possibility of being
manufactured in granulates or conformates of different size and shape to suit different
chemical reactor configurations (Moss 1980, Satterfield 1980). Only a few out of a wide
range of potential materials totally fulfil this set of desirable properties and combine them in
an optimum way. Carbon materials, and particularly activated carbon, are among this list of
materials. However, the number of industrial processes using activated carbon as catalyst or
catalyst support is still very small (Rodríguez-Reinoso 1998, Rodríguez-Reinoso 1997). The
irreproducibility of the results obtained when employing activated carbon supported catalysts
has been pointed as the main cause of their poor implementation in the catalyst market in
earlier years (Cameron 1990). Since the last decades of the last century until nowadays,
research efforts have been directed towards the understanding of the several aspects in the
preparation and physical and chemical properties of active carbons that determine their
behaviour as catalyst supports. As a result of these studies, activated carbons are being
recognized as unique materials for supporting a catalytically active phase. Moreover, their
flexibility in tailoring their properties to specific needs offers incomparable advantages vis-àvis
other well known and widely applied catalyst supports. 


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Activated Carbons as Catalyst Supports (pp.169-204)