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Conventional and Non-Conventional Thermal Processing for the Production of Activated Carbons from Agro-Industrial Wastes (pp.205-238) $100.00
Authors:  (Leandro S. Oliveira, Adriana S. Franca, Departamento de Engenharia Mecānica/UFMG, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil)
Abstract:
Adsorption is currently the most prospective technology being used for the removal
of organic and inorganic pollutants from waters and wastewaters. Although there are
many adsorbents in use, activated carbon is the most widely used adsorbent for the
removal of a variety of contaminants from waters. However, there is a major
disadvantage associated with it, which is the strict necessity to regenerate the activated
carbon, due to its inherent high cost, to allow for further use, thus, imparting additional
costs to the adsorption process. Another negative aspect is the loss of adsorption capacity
during the regeneration process which restricts its application even further. Although
synthetic resins present a longer working life than activated carbons as adsorbents, their
use is still costly for they also require regeneration after use. These aspects have greatly
stimulated research interests into the production of alternative low-cost adsorbents to
replace the costly activated carbons and synthetic resins. Attention has been focused on
preparation and use of low-cost adsorbents, which present adequate adsorption capacities
and are able to remove unwanted pollutants from contaminated waters without the need
for regeneration and, thus, doing so at a low-cost. Industrial wastes and agricultural
byproducts are classes of materials that are being considered the most promising
precursors for the production of low-cost adsorbents for they are renewable, locally
available in large quantities, inexpensive and require little processing to turn them into
activated carbons and increase their adsorption capacities toward a specific adsorbate
(pollutant). The majority of potential precursor materials being studied is of biological
origin and, thus, fit into the categories of carbonaceous or lignocellulosic materials. As
such, these materials contain a variety of chemical functional groups at their surfaces
(e.g., carboxylic, phenolic, amino and others) and upon thermal and chemical treatment
these groups can be manipulated, transforming the material into a more functionally
selective activated carbon. These surface modifications will contribute to a variety of
adsorption mechanisms, such as chemisorption, complexation, ion exchange and others,
depending on the possible spectrum of interactions between adsorbent and adsorbate.
Thus, the objective of this essay is to present a critical overview on conventional and
non-conventional thermal and chemical treatments that are being employed in the
preparation of activated carbons using residues of biological origin as precursors,
discussing their effects on both physical and chemical characteristics of the produced
adsorbents and on the performance of the prepared activated carbon for the removal of
wastewater pollutants. 


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Conventional and Non-Conventional Thermal Processing for the Production of Activated Carbons from Agro-Industrial Wastes (pp.205-238)