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01.Activated Carbons as Catalyst Supports (pp.169-204)
02.Combination of Ozone and Activated Carbon for Water and Wastewater Treatment (pp.433-474)
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Carbon Nanofibers: Synthesis, Types, Properties and Chemical Activation (pp.267-296) $100.00
Authors:  (Vicente Jiménez, Paula Sánchez, Mª Luz Sánchez, Antonio Nieto-Márquez, José Luís Valverde, Amaya Romero, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Escuela Técnica Agrícola, Departamento de Ingeniería, Química, Universidad de Castilla, La Mancha, Spain)
Carbon materials are found in a variety of forms such as graphite, diamond,
fullerenes, carbon nanofibers (CNFs), and carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Within the five, the
nanostructured carbon materials have sparked an increasing interest for chemists,
physicists, and material scientists worldwide. Carbon nanofibers have been recently
innovated due to their unique properties, which have generated an interest in applications,
including selective adsorption, hydrogen storage, polymer reinforcement and catalysts
To produce carbon nanostructures, three main techniques are generally used: arc
discharge, laser ablation, and chemical vapor deposition. In general, chemical vapor
deposition (CVD) results in carbon nanostructures that have a large diameter range,
which can be poorly controlled.
There are mainly three types of carbon nanofibers: the herringbone, in which the
graphene layers are stacked obliquely with respect to the fiber axis; the platelet, in which
the graphene layers are perpendicular to the fiber axis; and the ribbon, in which the
graphene layers are parallel to the growth axis.
High surface area, controlled pore size and pore size distribution are necessary for
the application of those materials in a specific end use. Thus, the specific surface area and
porosity of carbons nanofibers can be significantly modified by an activation process that
removes the most reactive carbon atoms from the structure, increasing the surface area
and porosity. The porous texture of the activated carbons depends strongly on both the
activation process (chemical or physical) and the nature of the precursor.
It has been shown that some experimental variables have great influences on the
porosity of the activated carbons prepared by chemical activation: nature of the metal
hydroxide, nature of the inert gas, the mass ratio activating agent/CNFs, activation
temperature and time, and the inert gas flow rate during the carbonization. 

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Carbon Nanofibers: Synthesis, Types, Properties and Chemical Activation (pp.267-296)