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01.Activated Carbons as Catalyst Supports (pp.169-204)
02.Combination of Ozone and Activated Carbon for Water and Wastewater Treatment (pp.433-474)
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Using Activated Carbon from Bagasse for Color Removal (pp.319-346) $100.00
Authors:  (Paitip Thiravetyan, Parinda Suksabye, Division of Biotechnology, School of Bioresources and Technology, King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi, Thakham, Bangkok, Thailand, and others)
Activated carbons have always become interesting materials due to their continuous
usages in many areas. These materials have been synthesized from many types of
carbonaceous precursors. Formerly, coal has become the major precursor for activated carbon
production. Since coal is more valuable to be used for energy generation, people started to
study many type of biomass such as coconut shell (Mozammel et al., 2002; Daud and Ali,
2004) as the precursors. The utilization of several type of biomass for activated carbon
production has a positive impact in reducing organic solid wastes.
One of the potential side products from the industries that can be used for producing
derivative products is bagasse, a solid waste from sugar juice extraction process. At present,
the common utilization of bagasse is based on its cellulosic content such as for making pulp
and particle board. In fact, bagasse is a valuable solid fuel to be combusted in steam boilers.
Most of the industries take this advantage and leave minimal excess of bagasse during normal
milling season. However, the ash from combustion process still contained high fixed carbon
content (60%) and have not yet commercially utilized causing disposal problems. This ash is
called ‘bagasse bottom ash (BBA)’ has high potential in producing activated carbon. In term
of BBA, the supply is steady as long as sugar industries still use bagasse for fueling their
steam boiler. A sugar industry emits approximately 5.5 kg of fly ash per metric ton of cane
processed in the fuel gases from the bagasse combustion. In case of Indonesia with around 2.5
million tons of annual production of cane, 13,750 tons of BBA per year is produced
Different types of activated carbons can be produced with specific characteristics
depending on the raw material and activation technique used in their production. The
manufacture of activated carbons involved two mains steps: the carbonization of
carbonaceous raw material, and the physical and/or chemical activation. According to BBA is
already a charcoal. Therefore, production of activated carbon from BBA needed only one step
by activation BBA by physical and/or chemical activation. The advantage of activated carbon
from BBA is it contained mainly mesopores that can use to adsorb large molecules of organic
compounds such as textile dyes, melanoidins, various colors from sugar syrup, colors from
vegetable oils, etc which the commercial activated carbon from coconut shell cannot adsorb
these large molecules. Therefore, BBA activated carbon can be applied to use as an
alternative adsorbent in various industries such as sugar and vegetable oils industries. 

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Using Activated Carbon from Bagasse for Color Removal (pp.319-346)