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01.Activated Carbons as Catalyst Supports (pp.169-204)
02.Combination of Ozone and Activated Carbon for Water and Wastewater Treatment (pp.433-474)
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Activated Carbonaceous Materials Based on Thermosetting Binder Precursors (pp.377-392) $100.00
Authors:  (J. Simitzis, Z. Ioannou, National Technical University of Athens, School of Chemical Engineering, Section III: Materials Science and Engineering, Laboratory Unit “Advanced and Composite Materials”, Athens, Greece)
There are many raw materials available for preparing activated carbons which can be
divided into two kinds: a) grade low coal (such as peat and lignite), waste pulp solution,
waste plastics and various agricultural by-products and b) synthetic resins and fibers.
Coal and lignocellulosic materials are the most commonly used starting materials for the
production of commercial activated carbons (ACs). The latter are also prepared from
various agricultural by-products and polymeric materials because of their low cost and
high carbon yield.
The pores in carbon materials play an important role in their functions and
characteristics. Glass-like carbon (GC) is prepared by heat-treatment on thermosetting
resins in inert atmosphere. They show various unique properties such as great hardness
compared with other carbon materials and gas impermeability.
Phenol-formaldehyde resins are being increasingly used to replace pitch as bonding
agents for refractory materials. Starting from such precursors, various carbons in the form
of fibers, particles, membranes and preforms have been produced. Carbonised phenolic
resins are usually highly microporous, with the amount of open micropores passing
through a maximum at a carbonisation temperature of 700 to 800 oC.
Molecular sieving carbon (MSC) or carbon molecular sieves (CMSs) are
carbonaceous adsorbents with almost uniform micropores of a few angstroms in diameter
having the ability to selectively separate molecules, mainly of a gas mixture. Carbon
molecular sieve membrane (CMSM) is usually prepared by carbonisation of polymeric
films, which conducts to the formation of a thin carbon layer or thin film of CMS with
pores smaller than 1 nm. In order to prepare CMSM, the polymeric precursor needs to
have thermosetting property in order to avoid melting when heated and thus retain
structure shape during heating and pyrolysis.
Mesoporous carbons, due to their high surface area and periodic arrays of uniform
pores, are utilized as catalysis and electrode materials for different purposes such as
protection of environment and improvement of energy efficiency. Mesoporous carbons
with high surface area, large porosity and fine electric-conductivity have been regarded
as an advanced material for many potential applications in nanotechnology. Monomers
such as furfuryl alcohol, acrylonitrile, and phenol-aldehyde monomers mixture were
usually used as the precursors to prepare mesoporous carbons.
Other carbonaceous forms includes carbon brushes prepared from proper
thermosetting resin binder and monolithic activated carbons prepared from resin
impregnated expanded graphite, from isotropic fibers or prepared as carbon aerogels.
Nanostructured carbon materials are potentially of great technological interest for the
development of electronic, catalytic and hydrogen-storage systems. 

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Activated Carbonaceous Materials Based on Thermosetting Binder Precursors (pp.377-392)