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Molecular Complexes of Antigen and Adjuvant in Vaccine Development (pp.89-106) $100.00
Authors:  (Shailja Tiwari, Suresh P. Vyas, Drug Delivery Research Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Dr. H. S. Gour University, Sagar (M.P.), India)
Vaccines have been considered as weapons of mass protection and are
the most efficacious and valuable toll in the prevention of infectious disease.
Among the available options for vaccination recombinant antigen and DNA
based vaccines have gain significant attention due to their safety and ease of
production. However, pure antigens have low immunogenicity and also they
cannot augment cellular immune response. The increased understanding of
molecular basis of immunological recognition offer possibility to apply
molecular design strategies to the development of synthetic vaccines. As the
capacity of an antigen to induce a protective immune response depends on
many extrinsic factors and regulatory mechanisms of the recipient host which
are amenable to molecular design of the immunogen (antigen). Therefore, the
research has been made to alter the structure of antigen by
conjugation/complexation of the molecules which enhance immunogenicity
of the antigen. These factors include its size, antigenicity, chemical nature,
hydrophobicity or hydrophillicity, foreignness, presence of
immunostimulatory moiety etc. Therefore, a careful designing of antigenic
molecule in order to achieve optimum immunogenicity is a prerequisite for
successful vaccination strategy. The immune response can be modulated by
complexation of another molecule (immunostimulatory adjuvant) or carrier
proteins, however their selection is limited by factors such as toxicity and
feasibility of their large-scale production for in vivo use. The present chapter
discusses a number of complexes of antigen along with adjuvant that have
been developed and tested to augment immune response against the antigen. 

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Molecular Complexes of Antigen and Adjuvant in Vaccine Development (pp.89-106)