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Valence from Conflict? Preliminary Evidence from Stroop Interference (pp.139-154) $100.00
Authors:  (Tanaz Molapour, Ezequiel Morsella, Department of Psychology, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, California, USA, and others)
One of the most well-established findings from the psychological laboratory is that
automatic action plans, such as those associated with language and reading acquisition,
can at times interfere with intended action, as demonstrated in the classic Stroop effect.In
this effect, automatic word-reading plans interfere with weaker color-naming plans.Less
explored are the ways in which such interference from language and reading acquisition
can influence the instantiation of positive and negative valence.Research on perception
and action has already shown that fluent/effortless processing engenders a positive
valence toward ambient stimuli.This, however, may not be a complete picture of how
valence arises from processing dynamics.It has been proposed that positive valence can
also emerge from effortful/conflicted processing, with valence effects on ambient stimuli
requiring a tight temporal relationship between time-of-processing and stimulus
presentation.In this first investigation on valence from the Stroop effect, participants
experienced response interference moments after being presented with a subliminal
nonsense shape.Interference engendered a positive valence toward the shape, but only
when interference and shape were temporally contiguous (separated by 200 ms).No
effects were found for two conditions without response interference, or when the
interference and shape were not temporally contiguous.In addition, for reasons that
remain unclear, no valence effects were found when with a weaker form of response
interference (response interference in the flanker task) or when Stroop interference
preceded the subliminal stimulus.Hence, any conclusions regarding valence from conflict
will require further investigation.Building on previous findings, these theoretical
approaches and preliminary data begin to illuminate how some processing-dynamics are
preferred over others, and how the acquisition of automatic action plans, such as those
associated with language, can have an impact on controlled processing and valence. 

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Valence from Conflict? Preliminary Evidence from Stroop Interference (pp.139-154)