Mesenchymal Stem Cells versus other Marrow-Derived Progenitor Cells in Angiogenesis and Vasculogenesis (pp. 89-106)
Authors: (Joanne McBane, Marc Ruel, Erik J. Suuronen, Division of Cardiac Surgery, Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Ottawa Heart Institute, Canada)
Abstract: Ischemia resulting from decreased blood flow is a central problem in cardiovascular disease and in most end-organ complications associated with diabetes. The lack of proper blood supply may also contribute to the failure of organ and tissue transplantations (e.g. pancreatic islet cell transplantation).
Cell-based therapies to induce blood vessel regeneration through angiogenesis or vasculogenesis in vivo are a major area of research in the field of regenerative medicine. Recruitment of new endothelial cells or differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) or endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) to endothelial cells may be a key to stimulating angiogenesis or vasculogenesis in vivo. Evaluation of early and late outgrowth peripheral blood-derived EPCs suggest that both have potential to stimulate angiogenesis.
Cell therapy trials using bone marrow stem cells and progenitor cells applied to ischemic disease states have yielded promising but modest results, with a definite opportunity for improvement. Tissue engineering constitutes one strategy to enhance the therapeutic effect of stem/progenitor cells. Matrix scaffolds with or without the use of growth factors have been developed and are under investigation for improving delivery and/or recruitment of MSCs and EPCs. This chapter discusses the current and potential uses of MSCs and EPCs in therapeutic angiogenesis and vasculogenesis in vitro and in vivo.