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Study on Urinary Iodine and Thiocyanate Concentrations in Bulgarian Schoolchildren and Students (pp. 183-194) $100.00
Authors:  (Aneliya V. Bivolarska, Penka D. Gatseva, Mariana D. Argirova, Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry, and Dept. of Hygiene, Ecology and Epidemiology, Medical University of Plovdiv, Bulgaria)
The role of iodine deficiency as an environmental determinant in the development of endemic goiter is firmly established. However, iodine deficiency does not always result in endemic goiter, and iodine supplementation does not completely prevent goiter. Even in the presence of extreme iodine deficiency there is an unequal geographic distribution of goiter. It is clear, therefore, that there are other factors, beyond iodine deficiency, that may play a role in the etiopathogenesis of endemic goiter. Most of the substances considered to be goitrogens are chemicals found in the environment, e.g. thiocyanates, competitively inhibit the iodine uptake and its organification in the gland.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between urinary iodine as reliable indicator of recent iodine status and urinary thiocyanate concentration supposedly related to tobacco smoke exposure of schoolchildren and university students. Subjects of study were 123 children (66 boys and 57 girls) aged 8 to 11 years and 104 medical students (51 men and 53 women) aged 19 to 25 years, all of them from the town of Plovdiv, Bulgaria. Urinary iodine was measured by the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction. The method for thiocyanate determination in urine was based on the quantitative oxidation of thiocyanate in acid permanganate solution with liberation of HCN, which reacted with picric acid. A questionnaire filled by the schoolchildren and students was used to evaluate their exposure to tobacco smoke and their smoking habits.
The median urinary iodine of the inspected schoolchildren was between 100-199 μg/L, which is an indicator of optimal iodine nutrition. However, 10.6% of the children had iodine deficiency. Statistically significant association between tobacco smoke exposure and the values of urine thiocyanate concentration in the inspected children was found. The median urinary iodine of the inspected students was 141 μg/L for the men and 130 μg/L for the women, which indicates optimal iodine nutrition. Around one-third of the subjects were with iodine deficiency though mild iodine deficiency was dominated. There were statistically significant differences between urinary thiocyanate concentrations in smokers and non-smokers (P < 0.0001) with higher thiocyanate values in smokers. None of the studied subjects has a ratio urinary iodine/thiocyanate (g/mg) below 3.5. The quantification of thiocyanate ions in urine provides a fast non-invasive method to monitor thiocyanate load from tobacco smoke. Thiocyanate levels should be carefully controlled in cases of severe iodine deficiency to avoid the competitive inhibition of iodine intake. 

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Study on Urinary Iodine and Thiocyanate Concentrations in Bulgarian Schoolchildren and Students (pp. 183-194)