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New Vaccination Strategies for the Improvement of DNA Vaccines Against Virus in Fish (pp. 213-235) $100.00
Authors:  (Carolina Tafalla, Centro de Investigación en Sanidad Animal (CISA-INIA), Spain, Amparo Estepa, Instituto de Biología Molecular y Celular (IBMC), Universidad Miguel Hernández, Spain, Julio Coll, SGIT, INIA, Biotecnología, Spain)
Vaccination seems like the most adequate method to control viral diseases in
aquacultured fish. Up to date, very few viral vaccines are commercialised, since it has
been a difficult task to obtain effective vaccines in fish that are both safe and costeffective.
In the past years, DNA vaccination has been proven as a very effective method
to control some rhabdoviral infections, such as those caused by infectious hematopoietic
necrosis virus (IHNV) and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), responsible for
great losses in aquaculture production. These vaccines consisting in a plasmid in which
the viral glycoprotein gene is expressed under the control of the citomegalovirus (CMV)
promoter, are able to confer protection in fish after intramuscular injection. Even though
the protection conferred is high and long-lasting, these vaccines are still not being used
worldwide due to safety issues concerning the viral promoter, to difficulties in the
administration of the vaccine at a large scale, and to high vaccination costs. Up to date,
only an IHNV DNA vaccine has been licensed for use in Canada.
Moreover, the immune mechanism through which they confer protection is still
unknown, and this is a major restriction for the optimisation of DNA vaccines for other
viral pathogens also of great importance in fish, such as for example nodavirus, for which
DNA vaccines as formulated for rhabdovirus are not effective.
In this chapter, we discuss the trends in research dealing with DNA vaccination in
fish, that will hopefully allow the improvement and finally the routine use of these
vaccines in aquaculture. These will include the possible use of molecular adjuvants; the
use of attenuated mutant glycoprotein genes and studies dealing with conformation
versus lineal epitopes; the substitution of the CMV promoter for promoters of a non-viral
origin; the use of induced plasmids or fish transposons, the study of new mass
vaccination methods, or the inclusion of specific siRNA sequences within the plasmid.
As well, we will review the most recent advances in studies related to the immune
response towards these vaccines, some of them based on microarray technologies, that
may help elucidate the immune mechanisms responsible for protection. 

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New Vaccination Strategies for the Improvement of DNA Vaccines Against Virus in Fish (pp. 213-235)