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Heart Failure: Symptoms, Causes and Treatment Options (pp.47-96) $100.00
Authors:  (Nan Li-Department of Medicine, University of Hong Kong, Jian-an Wang, Bernard Man Yung Cheung, Min Zhang, Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Cardiology, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China)
Heart failure is a major and growing public health problem in the United States as well as in the whole world. With increasing morbidity and mortality, it is primarily developed in the elderly population. It is crucial for a medical professional to critically evaluate diagnostic methods and therapies during the detection, management and prevention of heart failure, a progressive cardiac disorder. Diagnosis and appropriate treatment of heart failure at an early stage can prevent the advance of heart failure progression to the next stage. Emphasis on prevention of heart failure from stage A and B to Stage C and D is therefore utmost important. In 2009 ACC/AHA heart failure guideline, state of the art diagnostic approaches are medical history, physical examination, natriuretic peptides level determination and imaging modalities. Measurement of BNP or NT-BNP is helpful in differential diagnosis, stratification, prognosis and guided treatment of heart failure. Prevention of cardiac remodelling is an expected therapeutic target of heart failure treatment. Aggressive treatment of high risks of heart failure or its underlying diseases such as coronary artery disease, hypertension, and diabetes are highlighted. Evident reverse remodelling pharmacological therapies are angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB),
beta-blockers and aldosterone receptor blockers. Evident device therapies are cardiac resynchronization therapy and implantable cardioverter defibrillator. There are many interventions under investigations such as dietary intervention, exercise training, novel drug interventions, surgical approaches, gene therapy and stem cell transplantation. 

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Heart Failure: Symptoms, Causes and Treatment Options (pp.47-96)