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Cross-presentation induced by autophagy towards clinical approaches (pp.25-44) $100.00
Authors:  (Young-Jun Ju, Jannatul Firdous, Hyo-Shin Yoon, Seung Hyun Han and Cheol-Heui Yun)
It is essential to maintain homeostasis in most cells, other than the cells undertaking death pathways, requiring sufficient nutrients from the environmental surroundings. However, when cells face undesirable conditions, the cells digest their own intracellular organelles. This metabolic sequence is defined as “autophagy”, which has been recently in the spotlight due to its involvement into a variety of cell stress and defense responses including the host’s immune responses. Autophagy is categorized based on (1) how cargo delivery is proceeding to lysosome such as macroautophagy, microautophagy and chaperone-mediated autophagy, and (2) its target, selective and non-selective autophagy, both of which can modulate antigen presentation and therefore, the cell-mediated immunity under the certain conditions.
Once autophagy begins, it undergoes specific steps for digesting the organelles through lysosomes and specific cytoplasmic components by forming a double membrane known as “autophagosomes”. The autophagosomes are the best characterized components formed during the process of autophagy. Recently, immunologists have focused on “autophagy-related cross-presentation” due to the fact that it is a very efficient clinical tool for targeting numerous diseases including cancers and microbial infections
by cross-priming of microbial and tumor specific antigens to CD8+ T cells. Despite extensive efforts to discover the direct relationship between cross-presentation and autophagy, the precise mechanisms are yet not known. Therefore, we have traced a foot print of the autophagy and cross-presentation along with the clinical approaches to shed a new light to further studies and research strategies. In this chapter, the characteristics of autophagy, cross-presentation induced by autophagy and related research approaches are described in details. Furthermore, we provide a broad review of recent clinical data on implication of autophagy in immunopathophysiological conditions. 

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Cross-presentation induced by autophagy towards clinical approaches (pp.25-44)