Abstract: In recent paradigm, autophagy is considered as a fundamental cellular process which helps to maintain homeostasis under a variety stress-conditions that include exposure to toxic agents, injury, inflammation, and neoplastic transformations. Interestingly, autophagy can result in cell death under certain conditions and yet in other circumstances, the process can promote cell survival. Although there are relatively fewer studies on nanomaterial induced autophagy, the autophagic process is known to be induced by carbon nanomaterials, protein conjugated nanoparticles, gold nanoparticles, fullerene-derived nanomaterials, cadmium selenide and indium gallium phosphide quantum dots, nano neodymium oxide and rare earth oxide nanocrystals, among others. On the other hand, cerium oxide nanoparticles have been reported to inhibit autophagy by impeding reactive oxygen species formation and endoplasmic reticulum stress. There is a need for an in-depth understanding of the mechanisms. such as the role of ROS in mediating the cross-talk of endocytosed nanoparticles and autophagy, and the consequences of nanomaterial-induced autophagy requires further investigation.