Anemia is the common health problem all over the world. The term “tropical anemia” means the anemic disorders, which are predominant in the tropical region of the world. The purpose of this book is to summarize and present the topics specifically relating to the anemia in the forms that is unique in the tropical countries. Due to the globalization in the present day, the change in the epidemiology of diseases from one site to the others all around the world can be expected. The summative on the common anemic problems in the tropical countries can be and should be performed. This book can make them at least realize and familial with the problems. The details of this book focus on the anemia in the aspects relating to the tropical medicine. The book covers specifically the clinical aspects, scientific laboratory aspects, public health aspects as well as the social sciences relating to anemia in important tropical diseases. The common tropical diseases, including inherited disorders and infectious diseases, which relate to the anemia are summarized, presented and discussed. Mainly the book presents summative data from the molecular to the population scales, as well as additional metanalysis for important topics. In addition, the diagnostic guideline and clinical practice guideline of the mentioned conditions are presented.