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01.Pre- and Post-Harvest Intervention Strategies for Controlling Salmonella Contamination in Broiler Production (pp. 1-38)
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Hazard of Salmonella in the Intact Shell Egg and its Possible Removal From It (pp. 77-109) $100.00
Authors:  (Juan A. Ordoñez, M. Isabel Cambero, M. Luisa García, M. Concepción Cabeza, Departamento de Nutrición, Bromatología y Tecnología de los Alimentos, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain)
It is well known that the main microbiological hazard derived from egg consumption is the presence of Salmonellae, being the serovars S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium the most frequently implicated in the outbreaks. Although bacteria can reach the inside of the eggs by transovarian or through the shell pores, the main way of contamination probably occurs from organisms located in the shell, which can attain the inner part of the egg when it is broken for cooking other foods, e.g. custard, salads, desserts. In developed countries, the outbreaks of salmonellosis increased until 2004, observing a clear decline afterward, which is attributed to the success of implementing programs to control Salmonella in poultry populations. In spite of this, salmonellosis is still the main cause of foodborne illness. Therefore, the decontamination of shell eggs remains of public health concern yet.
Many chemical (e.g. washing, hydrogen peroxide, ozone and electrolyzed water) and physical (e.g. water boiling, pasteurization, ionizing and ultraviolet radiation, pulsed light, high pressure,) methods for shell eggs sanitation have been envisaged, being the pasteurization that of the most concern. Many heat treatment conditions have been proposed to remove Salmonellae from eggshells, but none have been completely satisfactory due to the adverse effects of the heat on the functional properties of the white and yolk.
An attempt to develop a procedure to reach this goal has been recently performed by our group. The ability of thermoultrasonication (ultrasounds and heat simultaneously applied) to eliminate Salmonella from eggshell was studied, using S. Enteritidis and S. Senftenberg as models. The thermoultrasonication dramatically reduced the heat resistant of Salmonella. E.g., the D-value of S. Enteritidis at 55 ºC (2.89 minutes for the heat treatment alone) was reduced a 77.16 %, i.e. it passed to 0.66 minutes when the
thermoultrasonication was applied. In the case of S. Senftenberg the reduction was lower. The same figures at 57 ºC were 10.54 and 3.92 minutes, respectively.
No effects of the thermoultrasonication on several attributes (shelf-life, loss of freshness, eggshell breaking strength, emulsifying and foaming abilities, etc.) were observed.
The fundamentals of the new process for shell egg sanitation have been established at a laboratory scale. As an ultrasonic treatment added to an existing heat process would increase its bactericidal efficiency, the process might have important practical implications for the egg industry. It is now necessary to validate the process at a higher scale to confirm the results. 

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Hazard of Salmonella in the Intact Shell Egg and its Possible Removal From It (pp. 77-109)