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01.Pre- and Post-Harvest Intervention Strategies for Controlling Salmonella Contamination in Broiler Production (pp. 1-38)
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Salmonella Enterica Isolated from Food, Environment, Animal, and Humans: Trends and Consequences for Public Health (pp. 193-207) $100.00
Authors:  (Imen Ben Salem, Fraj Hassine, Mahjoub Aouni, Monastir University, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases and Biological Agents, Faculty of Pharmacy, Monastir, Tunisia, and others)
Salmonella spp. are ubiquitous enteric bacteria. These gram-negative rods are the etiologic agents of food-borne salmonellosis and other food borne diseases (1, 2). It is also the agents that cause typhoid and paratyphoid fevers. An estimated 2 to 4 million cases of salmonellosis occur annually in the United States (3). In Tunisia, bacteriological results showed that the rate of salmonella contamination remains quite high. In fact, the infection progresses, mostly under sporadic and rarely in an epidemic mode.
Salmonella spp. can survive for long periods in natural waters, and the persistence of specific and epidemic strains is of great concern in public health. However, information on the diversity and occurrence of Salmonella strains is very scarce (4, 5), and as a consequence, the ecology of these species remains unknown. Salmonella bacteria cause, also, much of the food poisoning in the world, including an estimated 1,400,000 cases of salmonellosis in the United States each year. Although foods of animal origin (eggs, poultry, beef, dairy products…) are the vehicles of transmission in most Salmonella outbreaks, contaminated fresh fruits and vegetables are now recognized as the main cause of salmonellosis (1, 2).
The purpose of the present review was to provide information on the diversity of Salmonella strains isolated from environmental, animal, food and human samples which
allows to follow trends in salmonella enterica seotypes that provide information about source of infection and the efficacy of prevention and control measures.
Salmonella is an important source of food-borne disease in humans throughout the world. An important change in the epidemiology of Salmonella occurred since the mid 1980s, when Salmonella Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) became a major contaminant of eggs and egg products, hereby causing a worldwide pandemic. In France, salmonellosis is also the largest documented cause of foodborne infections (6). A total of 21 S. Muenster isolates had been received by the the French Food Safety Agency (Afssa) between January 2006 and February 2008. Among them, four were food isolates (poultry); the other 17 strains were from different origins (meat and bone meal, environmental isolates).
In Canada, in 1982, a documented food poisoning outbreak caused by S. Muenster occurred and implicated cheddar cheese made from unpasteurised milk as the source of infection (7). On March 2008, the National Reference Centre (NRC) for Salmonella reported three laboratory-confirmed cases of S. Muenster to the (Institut de veille sanitaire, InVS).
In Tunisia, during the study period (1994-2004), Nazek and coll showed that the top three Salmonella serotypes frequentely isolated with interchangeable ranking were: Anatum, Enteritidis and Corvallis (8). Aknown food origine was reported for all Salmonella isolates: red meat for S.enterica and S.Anatum. Whereas, S.Enteritidis, Corvallis and Anatum were most commonly isolated from poultry. The highest serotype commonly isolated from vegetables and fruits were S.enterica serotypes: Anatum, Enteritidis and Corvallis. Serotypes most frequentely isolated from milk and dairy products was S.enterica serotype Anatum.
Finally, on November 2007, the Singapore Ministry of Health was notified of an outbreak of food poisoning. This outbreak was the largest common source outbreak of gastroenteritis caused by Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype Enteritidis in Singapore. The epidemiological evidence implicates cream cake as the vehicle of transmission (9).
In addition to food contamination, Salmonella species are pathogenic bacteria often detected in wastewater, freshwater, marine coastal water, and groundwater. Municipal sewage and storm water runoff become the conduits for the passage of pathogens into surface waters (10, 11). Serotype Typhimurium was dominant in all river samples and in marine and freshwater sediments. A high occurrence of this serotype has already been reported for polluted freshwaters (12, 13). In contrast, serotype Newport was the dominant serotype in wastewater, and consequently, it was also found in river samples.
In Tunisia, Nazek and coll. reported that S.enterica serotype Corvallis was the most frequentely reported Salmonella serotype, accounting for 17.3% of all environmental isolates. Whereas, S.enterica serotype Enteritidis and S.enterica serotype Anatum came in second and third position, respectively, with non consistent trends during the study period (8). The most frequent source of isolation was tap water samples (8). Another study analyzing 60 wastewater samples showed that in entrance point 66.6% of samples were contaminated with Salmonella whereas, in exit points, a percentage of 20% were found. In entrance points, three serotypes of Salmonella spp. were detected: Typhimurium, Enteritidis and Montevideo; however, in exit points only the Typhimurim serotype was isolated (14). In 1999 and 2000, in Spain, the most frequent serotypes isolated from wastewater were S. Enteritidis and S. Anatum (15).
Regarding Salmonella strains isolated from animal, the most frequently isolated Salmonella serotype during the study period was S.enterica serotype Enteritidis followed by S.enterica serotype Corvallis. For Enteritidis serotypes, the source of isolation was poultry (70%), cattle (69%) and fish and shellfish (22%). While, S.enterica serotype Amesterdam and S. enterica serotype Corvallis were in a lead for cattles (8).
Salmonella strains present a great impact on human health. In Tunisia, during 11 year surveillance periode (1994-2004), the top three reported Salmonella serotypes
(Enteritidis, Corvallis and Linvingstone) accounted for 48.4% of all human isolates (8). S.enterica serotype Enteritidis came in first position during the study period, except for the years 2001, 2002, and 2003 where it came in the second position, prececed by S.enterica serotype Livingstone (8). The next not frequently reported serotype was Corvallis. Data from 2000 to 2004 suggest that Salmonella Corvallis infections are decreasing. S. enterica serotype Linvingstone was the third most common serotype (8). The most frequent source of isolation was stool samples (95% of Salmonella serotypes that were most commonly isolated) (8).
Human infection due to Salmonella enterica serovar Senftenberg is infrequent in the United States. This bacterium colonizes the gastrointestinal tract of birds and mammals, and has been isolated from sewage systems, poultry processing plants, and different animal feeds (16, 17). S. Senftenberg infections in humans have been documented, mainly in Africa (18, 19) and India (20, 21), as well as in 1 US outbreak of gastroenteritis (22). Nonintestinal infectious syndromes due to S. Senftenberg were also reported in the Indian study (23, 24).
At the end of February 2005, the National Institute for Health Surveillance was informed by the National Reference Centre for Salmonella of an increase of Salmonella enterica serotype Agona isolated in infants in January-February 2005. This is the first documented outbreak of Salmonella Agona in France. This investigation shows that regular microbiological examinations of formula were insufficient to detect low-grade or inhomogeneous contamination (
Our study highlighted the role of Salmonella as a pathogen widely dispersed in nature. These organisms can cause disease states that range from self-limited diarrhea to bacteremia considered as a public health problem. Thus, routine controls of all food, animal and human samples must be done in order to prevent community wide outbreaks of salmonellosis. The availability of routine molecular typing techniques in outbreak settings would facilitate tracing the source of infection and confirming epidemiological linkages of the Salmonella strains isolated from humans, food, animals and the environment. 

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Salmonella Enterica Isolated from Food, Environment, Animal, and Humans: Trends and Consequences for Public Health (pp. 193-207)