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01.Pre- and Post-Harvest Intervention Strategies for Controlling Salmonella Contamination in Broiler Production (pp. 1-38)
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Salmonella in Sub-Antarctica and Antarctica (pp. 261-267) $100.00
Authors:  (Vigo Germán, Cátedra de Microbiología, Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina)
Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica has been isolated from every region around the world and is considered as a potential pathogen for many animal species. The epidemiology, reservoirs and transmission of Salmonella is very complex owing to humans, animals and environment are involved. The purpose of this work was to review the current knowledge of Salmonella in the wildlife of sub-Antarctic and Antarctic region. For a long time Antarctic was a region that remained isolated from human contact, but in recent years the human presence has notably increased and as consequence, the danger of introduction of microorganisms to the Antarctic fauna. One of the most extensively studied bacterial species in the region is Salmonella, because of its characteristics mentioned above. Salmonella infections in Antarctic wildlife were first reported in 1970. Since then, several studies have been conducted, which showed that Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica isolated from sub-Antarctic and Antarctic fauna belonged to the most prevalent serovars in humans and domesticated animals, with the exception of few rare or exotic serovars. Some of Salmonella serovars found in Antarctic wildlife were: Enteritidis, Typhimurium, Newport, Infantis which are among the main serovars isolated from salmonellosis cases in humans and animals in the world. Salmonella infections in sub-Antarctic and Antarctic wildlife were reported in the following animals: Adelie penguins (Pygoscelis adelie), south polar skuas (Catharacta maccormicki), gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua), fur seal (Arctocephalus gazelle), black-browed albatross (Diomedea melanophrys), sea lions (Phocarctos hookeri), southern petrels (Macronectes giganteus), kelp gulls (Larus dominicanus), Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddelli), emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri). All of these animal species were Salmonella carriers and none of them had clinical signs of salmonellosis. Different routes of introduction of Salmonella to Antarctic region have been proposed: by human carriers, by contaminated foods, by infected birds, sewage from some land-based operations or from discharge of this material from ships sailing in waters of the region. One of the most possible routes of introduction is by birds, because many Antarctic birds have long routes of migration. Studies on Salmonella carried out in Antarctic region
allow the scientific community to know the sanitary status of Antarctic fauna and also, they can be used as an indicator to know the local ecosystem status. Up to now, in spite of the different studies that have been performed in sub-Antarctic and Antarctic, it was impossible to determine if Salmonella was introduced or was and indigenous bacterium in the Antarctic ecosystem. 

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Salmonella in Sub-Antarctica and Antarctica (pp. 261-267)