Functional Neurology and Immunology: III. Cell-Mediated Immunity (pp. 443-460)
Authors: Aristo Vojdani and Jama Lambert
Abstract: Harmony between the two branches of immunological host defense is imperative to human health. This review assessed the intricate tapestry of humoral and cell-mediated immune functioning, including constituents, interrelationships, feedback mechanism, and reciprocal control. Cytokines control the development and activation of the humoral and cellular arms of the immune system. Neutrophils circulate rapidly to sites of inflammation, where their primary role is to kill invading bacteria and certain fungal species. Dendritic cells are antigen-presenting cells that are the most potent initiators of the immune response that is responsible for the induction of primary antigen-specific immune reactions. Monocytes are circulating members of the myeloid cell lineage which give rise to tissue macrophages and dendritic cells and are capable of performing various functions which are vital for protecting the body against foreign invaders. DCs activated by macrophages interact with na´ve helper T cells or TH0. Depending on the immune response required, the na´ve CDH T cell differentiates into TH1, TH2, regulatory cell or TH3, and TH17. TH1 cells are part of cell-mediated immunity which is essential for controlling intracellular pathogens like viruses and certain bacteria. TH2 is involved in humoral immunity, protecting the host from unanticipated pathogens through receptors that can recognize a wide array of antigens. TReg cells can be crucial in balancing the two immune systems through the suppression of immune functioning in related disorders. TH17 protects the host against bacterial and fungal infections that are encountered at mucosal surfaces, and functions as a bridge between the two arms of the immune system. This information gives a solid basis for an accurate measurement and assessment of these cells as a therapeutic tool in the treatment of hypersensitivity, cancer, infection, autoimmunity, and organ transplant facilitation.