Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field and Cytokines Production (pp. 239-254)
Authors: (M. Reale, P. Amerio, Dept. of Experimental and Clinical Sciences, Dept. of Aging Medicine and Science (DMSI), Dermatologic Clinic, University "G. d'Annunzio" Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, Italy)
Abstract: Cytokines are proteins that interact with cells of the immune system in order to regulate the body's response to disease, infection, inflammation, and trauma. Once induced, cytokines help determine how the immune system should respond and to what degree, and their overproduction or inappropriate production can affect the immune response. Some cytokines act to make disease worse (proinflammatory), whereas others serve to reduce inflammation and promote healing (anti-inflammatory). The effects of Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) 50/60 Hz EMF, produced by many sources, e.g., transmission lines and all devices containing current-carrying wires, including equipment and appliances in industries and in homes, on human health remain unclear. There are many reports that ELF-EMF may modulate the immune response affecting human health. Studies of the possible health effects of EMF has been particularly complex and did not provide straightforward answers. Although the mechanism of this interaction is still obscure it has been shown that ELF-EMF can cause changes in cell proliferation, cell differentiation, cell cycle, apoptosis, DNA replication and expression. The effects of EMF may be useful and harmful depending on the intensity and frequency of the field, the period of exposure and the organism itself. A complete understanding of electromagnetic field effects on organisms helps in curing numerous illnesses as well as protecting from dangerous effects of electromagnetic fields. This review summarizes the effect of EMF exposure on cytokines production, although further studies are required to shed light on the mechanism by EMF regulate immune response influencing cytokines production.