The Use of Ultrasonic Methods to Monitor the Early Age Hydration Process of Cement Based Materials (pp. 24-46)
Authors: (Gregor Trtnik, Goran Turk, IGMAT Building Materials Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia, and others)
Abstract: During the recent years comprehensive studies have been performed focusing on the
possibility of using different ultrasonic techniques to monitor a hydration process and
formation of structure of cement based materials at early ages. As a result, researchers all
over the world have published many scientific articles dealing with this topic.
Among these, ultrasonic wave transmission and ultrasonic wave reflection methods
are generally used. Using these techniques, the hydration process of various cementitious
materials with different compositions can be measured continuously and nondestructively.
Moreover, the methods have been proven to be very sensitive to the
presence of different chemical and mineral admixtures in the material composition. On
the basis of different ultrasonic parameters, procedures have been proposed to identify
important milestones that appear during the formation of structure of the material,
including initial and final setting time. Ultrasonic parameters have been successfully
correlated to various material properties, namely the percolation of solid phases,
compressive strength, elastic and shear modulus, degree of cement hydration, degree of
capillary porosity, viscosity etc. Undoubtedly, these results improve practical application
of the ultrasonic methods to a high degree.
In this chapter, an overview of some most important results dealing with the
possibility of using ultrasonic wave transmission and ultrasonic wave reflection methods
to monitor the setting and hardening process of cement based materials at early ages is
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