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Neuroendocrine Regulation of Sedation and Excitation in Neonatal Chicks (pp. 1-28) $100.00
Authors:  (Mitsuhiro Furuse, Mark A. Cline, Takashi Bungo, Kunio Sugahara, Laboratory of Regulation in Metabolism and Behavior, Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan, and others)
The neuroendocrine system regulates arousal, and exogenous intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of some neuropeptides and neurotransmitters in chicks can cause excitation (moving more and vocalizing loudly), while others induce a sedation state (being calm and moving less with or without hypnosis). One such excitatory neuropeptide is corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), which when i.c.v. injected stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and induces excitation. However, this response is dependent on stock: plasma corticosterone concentrations are higher in layer-type (layer) than in meat-type (broiler) chicks. In contrast, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) induces sedation with hypnosis partly through activation of adrenergic pathways, a response that is also stock dependent: broiler chicks sleep more than layer chicks.
Endogenous neurotransmitter systems do not function independently: co-injection of CRF and GLP-1 caused intermediate behaviors, implying that the two peptides interact in the chick brain. In addition to GLP-1, norepinephrine and serotonin also interact with CRF, but through different mechanisms, to attenuate CRF-induced behavior. Additionally, melatonin attenuated the stimulation of HPA axis by CRF. 

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Neuroendocrine Regulation of Sedation and Excitation in Neonatal Chicks (pp. 1-28)