Current concepts for surgical treatment of mitral valve pathology (pp. 409-444)
Authors: (Jose L. Navia, Nicolas A. Brozzi and Sharif Al-Ruzzeh)
Abstract: Mitral valve pathology affects 2,4% of the population in the United Stated, mainly manifested as mitral valve insufficiency of degenerative etiology. Around twenty thousand patients require surgical treatment every year. 
In developing countries, however, rheumatic etiology continues to be the most prevalent cause of mitral valve pathology, causing stenosis or mixed valvular lesions.
Surgical treatment of mitral valve disease has evolved in recent years with the introduction of minimally invasive approaches through limited incisions, robotic surgery, and the development of devices designed for trascatheter implantation.
This chapter will review the general indications for surgery in mitral valve pathology, describe alternative surgical approaches, and discuss the evolution of surgical techniques.