Modeling of Adaptation and Fatigue with Overload Training pp. 65-81
Authors: Thierry Busso
Abstract: The aim of this chapter is to review the methods and insights from modeling studies on the effects of training on performance. Application of systems theory to the responses to physical training was initiated by Banister and coworkers in 1975. This model describes the responses to physical training assuming that performance is the balance between adaptation and fatigue produced by the repetition of training bouts. These two antagonistic components of the model are obtained by first-order filters characterized by a gain term and a time constant. Data from the literature are presented to analyze the adequacy of the model and to compare the model parameters obtained across different studies. The general scheme of the model should apply to various activities. A greater increase in fatigue than adaptation with intensive training could provoke transient decrease in performance. After overload training, subsequent reduction of training could allow fatigue to dissipate more quickly than adaptation, yielding to performance peaking. Nevertheless, since the model parameters appeared to be dependent on the severity of the training doses, a new formulation of the model has been proposed to include a third component which allows the fatigue factor to increase with accumulation of training. This new formulation of the model assuming that the response to a training dose varies with previous training is presented using previously published data from an athlete’s competitive season.