Territorial disputes refer to disputes over territories that are claimed by two or more independent countries. Territorial disputes may evolve from historical and/or cultural claims, or they may be brought on by competition of resource exploitation. Ethnic clashes continue to be responsible for much of the territorial fragmentation around the world. Disputes over islands at sea or in rivers frequently form the source of territorial and boundary conflicts. Other sources of contention include access to water and mineral (especially petroleum) resources, fisheries, and arable land. Issues pertaining to the territorial control of seawaters have long been the subject of international law. This book sets out to present a guide to resource management in disputed areas throughout the world.