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Non-invasive brain stimulation approaches to fibromyalgia pain (pp. 259-276) $45.00
Authors:  (Baron Short, Jeffrey J. Borckardt, Mark George, Will Beam and Scott T. Reeves)
Abstract:
Fibromyalgia is a poorly understood disorder that likely
involves central nervous system sensory hypersensitivity.
There are a host of genetic, neuroendocrine and
environmental abnormalities associated with the disease,
and recent research findings suggest enhanced sensory
processing, and abnormalities in central monoamines and
cytokines expression in patients with fibromyalgia. The
morbidity and financial costs associated with fibromyalgia
are quite high despite conventional treatments with
antidepressants, anticonvulsants, low-impact aerobic
exercise and psychotherapy. Noninvasive brain stimulation
techniques, such as transcranial direct current stimulation,
transcranial magnetic stimulation, and electroconvulsive
therapy are beginning to be studied as possible treatments
for fibromyalgia pain. Early studies appear promising but
more work is needed. Future directions in clinical care may
include innovative combinations of noninvasive brain
stimulation, pharmacological augmentation, and behavior
therapies. 


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Non-invasive brain stimulation approaches to fibromyalgia pain (pp. 259-276)