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Brain stimulation for the treatment of pain: A review of costs, clinical effects, and mechanisms of treatment for three different central neuromodulatory approaches (pp. 339-352) $45.00
Authors:  (Soroush Zaghi, Nikolas Heine and Felipe Fregni)
Abstract:
Methods of cortical stimulation including epidural motor
cortex stimulation (MCS), repetitive transcranial magnetic
stimulation (rTMS), and transcranial direct current
stimulation (tDCS) are emerging as alternatives in the
management of pain in patients with chronic medicallyrefractory
pain disorders. Here we consider the three
methods of brain stimulation that have been investigated for
the treatment of central pain: MCS, rTMS, and tDCS.
While all three treatment modalities appear to induce
significant clinical gains in patients with chronic pain,
tDCS is revealed as the most cost-effective approach
(compared to rTMS and MCS) when considering a single
year of treatment. However, if a 5-year treatment is
considered, MCS is revealed as the most cost-effective
modality (as compared to rTMS and tDCS) for the
neuromodulatory treatment of chronic pain. We discuss the
theory behind the application of each modality as well as
efficacy, cost, safety, and practical considerations. 


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Brain stimulation for the treatment of pain: A review of costs, clinical effects, and mechanisms of treatment for three different central neuromodulatory approaches (pp. 339-352)