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01.Protecting and supporting high risk populations in pandemic: Drawing from experiences with influenza A (H1N1) (pp. 371-381)
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The impact of acetonitrile on human health: Clinical and toxicological overview (pp. 289-302) $45.00
Authors:  Joćo Cleverson Gasparetto, Thais Guimarćes de Francisco, Francinete Ramos Campos, and Roberto Pontarolo
Acetonitrile is a toxic substance that has adverse health effects and can lead to death. It has widely been used as an organic solvent in extractive processes, and it is commonly applied to the development and manufacturing of cosmetics, pharmaceutical and agricultural products. Human exposure generally occurs by inhalation acetonitrile vapors or by the absorption of the liquid or vapor through the skin and eyes. The poisoning can also occur by drinking contaminated water or by ingesting contaminated foods. Acetonitrile blocks the reduction of oxygen needed for cellular respiration and thus leads to cytotoxic anoxia. The potential for acetonitrile toxicity depends on the amount, route (inhalation, contact, and ingestion), time and frequency of exposure(s). With prolonged exposure, the liver, lungs, kidneys, and central nervous system may be affected. It is important to mention that acetonitrile is readily absorbed by the lungs and the gastrointestinal tract and is thus quickly distributed throughout the body. Consequently, if exposure occurs, this substance must be rapidly removed from the body, and the procedures for detoxification should be started immediately because fast support is decisive for the treatment success. Considering that acetonitrile has worldwide use, thousands of people are daily exposed to. For that reason compiled informations encompassing their properties, personal precautions, clinical aspects and impact on human health becomes important, particularly to understand their risks and to guarantee the safe application of the chemical. The present work provides an overview of acetonitrile with especial emphasizing on its physico and chemical properties, application, clinical aspects, precautions and procedures following acetonitrile exposure. 

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The impact of acetonitrile on human health: Clinical and toxicological overview (pp. 289-302)