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The State of the Oral Mucosa in Patients with a Laboratory-Confirmed Diagnosis of COVID-19, Severe to Moderate Severity (pp. 295-297) $0.00
Authors:  A. Kh. Nasibullina, D. A. Valishin, M. F. Kabirova, R. F. Rakhimova, and A. A. Izosimov
Abstract:
This article discusses the clinical manifestations in patients with COVID-19. The author pays special attention to the state of the oral mucosa and the rationale for its changes in patients with a laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of covid-19 of severe and moderate severity.
The official name of the infection (COVID-19) was assigned by the WHO. Prior to this, the term 2019-nCOV was used. To avoid misinterpretations in terms of the origin of the virus, the international committee on virus taxonomy assigned the pathogen the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronovirus-2 [1]. COVID-19 has the same symptoms as SARS: fever, cough in 80% of cases, shortness of breath, myalgia and fatigue, and feeling of congestion in the chest [3, 4].
To date, there is no evidence of the effectiveness of etiotropic therapy in COVID-19. However, in the absence of alternatives, it does not allow us to confidently consider non-applicable treatment methods that have shown local effectiveness.
In official statistics, the current number of deaths recorded by national health systems as deaths from COVID-19 is about 100,000. Of these, 2/3 are in Italy, Spain, the United States, and France. While specific prevention is not used, vaccines are undergoing clinical trials in several countries.
Among the 72 thousand cases of COVID-19 registered in the Chinese center for disease control and prevention and prevention, 81%were mild, 14% were severe, 5% were in critical condition and 2.3% were fatal. The death rate from this disease ranges from 5.8% in Wuhan to 0.7 in the rest of China [3].
The Russian Ministry of Health noted that the risk of carrying COVID-19 in a more severe form increases with age. In the United States, relative mortality was most common among the elderly aged 65-84 years (3-11%). All patients admitted to the hospital are found to have pneumonia with infiltrates on the x-ray image of a computer tomography of the “frosted glass” type. Mostly, changes affect the lower parts of the lungs, rarely the middle part of the right lung. In another study, changes in the images are found in 75% of patients.
Pneumonia can also be detected in asymptomatic cases of infection. 1/3 of patients develop acute respiratory distress syndrome, while tachycardia, tachypnea, or acidosis may also be detected, accompanied by hypoxia, respiratory failure, sepsis, infectious, and toxic shock. [4].
In Brazil, cases of ulcers, plaques, cracks in the tongue have been described in elderly patients with COVID-19. Infected people can suffer from hypogeusia, candidiasis, and other pathological conditions in the mouth. Scientists from the Laboratory of Oral Histopathology, Health Sciences Faculty, University of Brasilia, described in their article the lesions of the oral mucosa in a patient with coronavirus infection. It was noted that there occur dysgeusia, petechiae, candidiasis, traumatic ulcers and lesions of the tongue, and oral mucosa, as well as herpes and stomatitis. People with endogenous diseases and oral mucosa diseases are at risk of getting infected with COVID-19. Diseases that increase the risk of infection: stomatitis, gingivitis, and periodontitis [5].
Russian experts believe that such symptoms can be observed as secondary manifestations of infection and effects from taking medications. Dental problems alone weaken the protective functions of the body and can be a risk factor for infection [6]. 


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The State of the Oral Mucosa in Patients with a Laboratory-Confirmed Diagnosis of COVID-19, Severe to Moderate Severity (pp. 295-297)